CCIE Pursuit Blog

September 25, 2007

VTP: Which VTP Server Generated The Most Recent Update?

Recently JB left the following comment:

Hi,

I have a VTP question, unrelated to vtp passwords.
I have multiple switches connected by trunks, most on the same vtp domain. Two of the switches are VTP Servers – an Agg pair, and the others are either Transparent or clients.
What command can I use at a Transparent or Client switch, to identify the VTP Server that is managing the VLANs, that sent the last update. Thanks much, hope you can help.

Regards,

My initial answer was to tell him that there was not way of finding out that information without comparing the VTP status on the client switch (transparent switches don’t use VTP for updates) to the same output on the VTP server switch.  Before I responded, I wanted to check out the functionality of the “Local updater ID” in VTP.  I’m glad that I did.

For those of you who don’t want to read this entire post (and I don’t blame you) here’s the quick and easy answer: By configuring an IP address on your VTP server switches you’ll be able to use the “Local updater ID” (on VTP client and server switches) to see which VTP server last updated the VLAN database via VTP.

I think that I’ve mentioned before that I’ve never used VTP in a production environment before.  I’ve used VTP domain names to identify sites for CiscoWorks, but all of our switches are set to VTP transparent mode.  The only time that I’ve used VTP server/client is in the lab.  I tried to find more information on the “Local updater ID” but came back pretty empty.  I decided to lab up a scenario to answer JB’s question:

sw1———-sw2———-sw3———-sw4
server      client     transparent     server
CCIE        CCIE       CCIE            CCIE

All of the switches are in the VTP domain CCIE.  sw1 and sw4 are servers, while sw2 is a client and sw3 is tranparent.

Note: Before labbing this up, make sure that your devices have their clocks synchronized (“clock set” command).

Let’s start by adding a vlan to sw1.  This will propagate to sw2 (client) and sw4(server).  Let’s see if we can tell by looking at sw2 and sw4 where the update came from.

sw1(server):
sw1#sh vtp status
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 0
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x13 0x23 0x62 0x16 0x83 0xCD 0x50 0xEC
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)

add vlan on sw1:
sw1(config)#vlan 69
sw1(config-vlan)#name TEST_069
sw1(config-vlan)#exit
sw1(config)#do sh vtp status
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 1 
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6  
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x38 0x5C 0x9D 0x0F 0x3E 0x6C 0x1F 0x84
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 08:59:56
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)

sw2(client)
sw2#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 1
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6  
VTP Operating Mode              : Client
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x38 0x5C 0x9D 0x0F 0x3E 0x6C 0x1F 0x84
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 08:59:56

sw2#sh vlan id 69

VLAN Name                             Status    Ports
—- ——————————– ——— ——————————-
69   TEST_069                         active    Fa0/13, Fa0/18

sw3 (transparent)
sw3#sh vtp stat
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 0 
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5  
VTP Operating Mode              : Transparent
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x57 0xCD 0x40 0x65 0x63 0x59 0x47 0xBD
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00

sw3#sh vlan id 69
VLAN id 69 not found in current VLAN database

sw4(server):
sw4#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 1  
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x38 0x5C 0x9D 0x0F 0x3E 0x6C 0x1F 0x84
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 08:59:56 
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)

sw4#sh vlan id 69

VLAN Name                             Status    Ports
—- ——————————– ——— ——————————-
69   TEST_069                         active    Fa0/19

So, we do see when the updates come in, but we don’t see a layer 2 address associated with it.  In a situation where there are multiple VTP servers in the VTP domain, this doesn’t help us to identify which VTP server iniated the most recent update.  Let’s first remove our test vlan on sw4 (server) and see how that affects the VTP domain:

sw4 (server):
sw4(config)#no vlan 69
sw4(config)#^Z
sw4#sh v
01:22:12: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
sw4#sh vtp status
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 2
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xA4 0x5F 0x11 0x86 0x4D 0x57 0x50 0xC7
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:06:13
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)

sw3(transparent):
sw3#sh vtp status
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 0
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Transparent
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x57 0xCD 0x40 0x65 0x63 0x59 0x47 0xBD
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00

sw2(client):
sw2#sh vtp status
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 2
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5  
VTP Operating Mode              : Client
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xA4 0x5F 0x11 0x86 0x4D 0x57 0x50 0xC7
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:06:13

sw2#sh vlan id 69
VLAN id 69 not found in current VLAN database
sw1(server):
sw1#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 2
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xA4 0x5F 0x11 0x86 0x4D 0x57 0x50 0xC7
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:06:13
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)
sw1#sh vlan id 69
VLAN id 69 not found in current VLAN database

Okay…so the timestamp is nice, but in the case where you have multiple servers in your VTP domain, it is useless for finding out which server iniated a change.  In our case we could see that the client’s (sw2) VLAN database was changed at 9:06:13, but we can’t tell if it was sw1 or sw4 that iniated the change.

Let’s add some layer 3 addresses to the mix.  First let’s add an l3 address to sw1 but not to sw4 and repeat the same experiment as above:

sw1(server):
sw1(config)#int lo0
sw1(config-if)#ip add 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255
sw1(config-if)#do sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 2
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xA4 0x5F 0x11 0x86 0x4D 0x57 0x50 0xC7
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:06:13
Local updater ID is 10.0.0.1 on interface Lo0 (first layer3 interface found)

Let’s add a VLAN on sw1:

sw1(config-if)#vlan 69
sw1(config-vlan)#name TEST_069
sw1(config-vlan)#end
sw1#
01:29:49: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
sw1#sh vtp status
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 3
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xDF 0x82 0xE1 0x8F 0x9E 0xE4 0x74 0x24
Configuration last modified by 10.0.0.1 at 9-25-07 09:14:33  <-note time and IP address
Local updater ID is 10.0.0.1 on interface Lo0 (first layer3 interface found)

sw2(client):
sw2#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 3
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6
VTP Operating Mode              : Client
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xDF 0x82 0xE1 0x8F 0x9E 0xE4 0x74 0x24
Configuration last modified by 10.0.0.1 at 9-25-07 09:14:33  <-booyah!!!
sw2#sh vlan id 69

VLAN Name                             Status    Ports
—- ——————————– ——— ——————————-
69   TEST_069                         active    Fa0/13, Fa0/18

sw3(transparent):
sw3#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 0
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Transparent
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x57 0xCD 0x40 0x65 0x63 0x59 0x47 0xBD
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00

sw4(server):
sw4#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 3
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xDF 0x82 0xE1 0x8F 0x9E 0xE4 0x74 0x24
Configuration last modified by 10.0.0.1 at 9-25-07 09:14:33
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)
sw4#sh vlan id 69

VLAN Name                             Status    Ports
—- ——————————– ——— ——————————-
69   TEST_069                         active    Fa0/19

SWEET!  We CAN find out which VTP server made the last update to a VTP client switch by just looking at the “show vtp status” output PROVIDED WE HAVE AN IP ADDRESS CONFIGURED ON THE VTP SERVER SWITCH. 

Let’s remove the vlan on sw4 and then see what happens (sw4 does not have a layer 3 address configured).  In the interest of keeping this post under 100,000 words I’m not going to include sw3 (transparent):

sw4 (server):
sw4(config)#no vlan 69
sw4(config)#do sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 4
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x36 0xD3 0xE7 0x16 0xB1 0xF7 0x76 0x54
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:16:54
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)

sw2(client):
sw2#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 4
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Client
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x36 0xD3 0xE7 0x16 0xB1 0xF7 0x76 0x54
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:16:54
sw2#sh vlan id 69
VLAN id 69 not found in current VLAN database

sw1(server):
sw1#sh vtp status
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 4
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x36 0xD3 0xE7 0x16 0xB1 0xF7 0x76 0x54
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:16:54
Local updater ID is 10.0.0.1 on interface Lo0 (first layer3 interface found)
sw1#sh vlan id 69
VLAN id 69 not found in current VLAN database

If you have multiple VTP servers in your VTP domain, you’ll want to make sure that each of the VTP servers has an IP address configured.  We pretty much know how this will turn out, but for the sake of completeness, let’s configure an l3 address on sw4 and then add a vlan to that switch (server).

sw4(server):
sw4(config)#int lo0
01:36:25: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Loopback0, changed state to up
sw4(config-if)#ip add 10.0.0.4 255.255.255.255

sw4(config-if)#do sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 4
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x36 0xD3 0xE7 0x16 0xB1 0xF7 0x76 0x54
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:16:54
Local updater ID is 10.0.0.4 on interface Lo0 (first layer3 interface found)
*********
WARNING:

Make sure that you “exit” the vlan configuration or else your vlan will NOT be created:

sw4(config-if)#vlan 69
sw4(config-vlan)#name LAST_TEST
sw4(config-vlan)#do sh vtp statu  <- I have not exited the “config-vlan” mode so vlan 69 is NOT created yet
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 4
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 5 <-note
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0x36 0xD3 0xE7 0x16 0xB1 0xF7 0x76 0x54
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 9-25-07 09:16:54 <-old update
Local updater ID is 10.0.0.4 on interface Lo0 (first layer3 interface found)

********
sw4(config-if)#vlan 69
sw4(config-vlan)#name LAST_TEST
sw4(config-vlan)#exit
sw4(config)#do sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 5
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xF4 0x4E 0xDA 0xAA 0x12 0xC1 0x77 0xB1
Configuration last modified by 10.0.0.4 at 9-25-07 09:23:34
Local updater ID is 10.0.0.4 on interface Lo0 (first layer3 interface found)

sw2(client):
sw2#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 5
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6
VTP Operating Mode              : Client
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xF4 0x4E 0xDA 0xAA 0x12 0xC1 0x77 0xB1
Configuration last modified by 10.0.0.4 at 9-25-07 09:23:34
sw2#sh vlan id 69

VLAN Name                             Status    Ports
—- ——————————– ——— ——————————-
69   LAST_TEST                        active    Fa0/13, Fa0/18

sw1#sh vtp statu
VTP Version                     : 2
Configuration Revision          : 5
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs        : 6
VTP Operating Mode              : Server
VTP Domain Name                 : CCIE
VTP Pruning Mode                : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode                     : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation            : Disabled
MD5 digest                      : 0xF4 0x4E 0xDA 0xAA 0x12 0xC1 0x77 0xB1
Configuration last modified by 10.0.0.4 at 9-25-07 09:23:34
Local updater ID is 10.0.0.1 on interface Lo0 (first layer3 interface found)
sw1#sh vlan id 69

VLAN Name                             Status    Ports
—- ——————————– ——— ——————————-
69   LAST_TEST                        active    Fa0/13

By configuring an IP address on your VTP server switches you’ll be able to use the “Local updater ID” when troubleshooting VTP updates.

September 15, 2007

3560 to 3560 Orange Lights

Filed under: Cisco,Cisco Certification,Home Lab,IOS,Switching — cciepursuit @ 3:57 pm

CCIE Journey encountered some interesting lights on his 3560s while setting up his lab:

My four switches are connected as per IE’s layer 1 configuration. Now the three links that connect SW1 and SW2 on the two 3560’s were coming up weird on SW1. Interface fa 0/13 was showing green on both switches, but fa0/14-15 was showing orange on SW1.Once Trunking come up in the COD tonight it reminded me that 3560’s run Dynamic Auto by default. So I set Dynamic Desirable on links Fa 0/13-15 on SW2 and both orange led’s on SW1 went green again. Ok I thought that makes sense, but what doesn’t make sense is why was fa 0/13 green on SW1 if both sides were set to auto as well ? It is the little things that drive me…

I had an idea that this was due to STP blocking on the two non-root ports of sw1.  I wish that I could say that I thought of this not because I am a networking guru (not even close!), but the reason that this jumped into my skull is because of an annoying customer that I once had. 

The customer was at a location that were going to to upgrade to our standard 3750 switch stacks, but in the mean time were using 3560s “stacked” with crossover cables on redundant links between the switches in the “stack”.  Almost immediately he started paging out the network team because of “bad ports”.  It seemed that there were a couple of orange lights on the switchports.  I looked into the issue and told him that those ports were in spanning-tree blocking state and that was why the port lights were orange.  I told him that this was normal and would not affect the switches.  Of course the orange lights became legendary “bad ports” and every network blip at that site was immediately blamed on these ports.  Eventually, I “fixed” the problem by having the customer push the “Mode” button on the front of the switch.  This set the Mode to “DUPLX” and all of the port lights went green because all of the ports were running at full duplex.  Unfortunately, this only “worked” for a brief period of time because the Mode would eventually switch back to “STAT” and the blocking ports would become orange again.  😦

Anyhoo….I labbed up CCIE Journey’s scenario by defaulting ports fa0/13 – 15 on sw1 and sw2, then:

sw1#sh ver | i IOS
Cisco IOS Software, C3560 Software (C3560-IPSERVICESK9-M), Version 12.2(25)SEE2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
sw1#sh run | b 0/13
interface FastEthernet0/13 <-ports have been defaulted
!
interface FastEthernet0/14
!
interface FastEthernet0/15
!
sw1#sh int status | b 0/13
Fa0/13                       connected    1          a-full  a-100 10/100BaseTX
Fa0/14                       connected    1          a-full  a-100 10/100BaseTX
Fa0/15                       connected    1          a-full  a-100 10/100BaseTX

sw1#sh sp v 1

VLAN0001
  Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
  Root ID    Priority    32769
             Address     0012.009c.ca00
             Cost        19
             Port        15 (FastEthernet0/13)
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec

  Bridge ID  Priority    32769  (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)
             Address     0012.018f.d580
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec
             Aging Time 300

Interface        Role Sts Cost      Prio.Nbr Type
—————- —- — ——— ——– ——————————–
Fa0/13          Root FWD 19      128.15   P2p
Fa0/14           Altn BLK 19        128.16   P2p
Fa0/15           Altn BLK 19        128.17   P2p
************************

sw2 is the root switch: 
sw2#sh ver | i IOS
Cisco IOS Software, C3560 Software (C3560-IPSERVICESK9-M), Version 12.2(25)SEE2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
sw2#sh run | b 0/13
interface FastEthernet0/13 <-ports have been defaulted
!
interface FastEthernet0/14
!
interface FastEthernet0/15
!

sw2#sh int status | b 0/13
Fa0/13                       connected    1          a-full  a-100 10/100BaseTX
Fa0/14                       connected    1          a-full  a-100 10/100BaseTX
Fa0/15                       connected    1          a-full  a-100 10/100BaseTX

sw2#sh sp v 1

VLAN0001
  Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
  Root ID    Priority    32769
             Address     0012.009c.ca00
             This bridge is the root
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec

  Bridge ID  Priority    32769  (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)
             Address     0012.009c.ca00
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec
             Aging Time 15

Interface        Role Sts Cost      Prio.Nbr Type
—————- —- — ——— ——– ——————————–
Fa0/13           Desg FWD 19        128.15   P2p
Fa0/14           Desg FWD 19        128.16   P2p
Fa0/15           Desg FWD 19        128.17   P2p
**************

sw2 is the root.  The ports are all FWD (therefore all green).  sw1 is non-root, fa1/13 is the root port and therefore forwarding (green), the other two are blocking(orange).

We can test whether the lights are orange due to STP blocking two ways:

1) Make sw1 the root and see if its lights all go green, while sw2’s fa0/14 and fa0/15 go orange.
2) Change the root port on sw1 to fa0/14 and see if it goes green while fa0/13 goes orange.

Method 1:

sw1(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary
sw1(config)#^Z

sw1#sh sp v 1

VLAN0001
  Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
  Root ID    Priority    24577
             Address     0012.018f.d580
             This bridge is the root <-sw1 is now the root
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec

  Bridge ID  Priority    24577  (priority 24576 sys-id-ext 1)
             Address     0012.018f.d580
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec
             Aging Time 15

Interface        Role Sts Cost      Prio.Nbr Type
—————- —- — ——— ——– ——————————–
Fa0/13           Desg FWD 19        128.15   P2p
Fa0/14           Desg FWD 19        128.16   P2p
Fa0/15           Desg FWD 19        128.17   P2p

sw2#sh sp v 1

VLAN0001
  Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
  Root ID    Priority    24577
             Address     0012.018f.d580
             Cost        19
             Port        15 (FastEthernet0/13)
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec

  Bridge ID  Priority    32769  (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)
             Address     0012.009c.ca00
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec
             Aging Time 300

Interface        Role Sts Cost      Prio.Nbr Type
—————- —- — ——— ——– ——————————–
Fa0/13           Root FWD 19        128.15   P2p <-note
Fa0/14           Altn BLK 19        128.16   P2p
Fa0/15           Altn BLK 19        128.17   P2p

Now all three of sw1’s port are green, while fa0/13 on sw2 is green and fa0/14 – 15 are orange.  I don’t have photos, so you’ll have to trust me on this  🙂 

Method 2 (after making sw2 the root again):

sw1#sh sp v 1

VLAN0001
  Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
  Root ID    Priority    32769
             Address     0012.009c.ca00
             Cost        19
             Port        15 (FastEthernet0/13)
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec

  Bridge ID  Priority    32769  (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)
             Address     0012.018f.d580
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec
             Aging Time 15

Interface        Role Sts Cost      Prio.Nbr Type
—————- —- — ——— ——– ——————————–
Fa0/13           Root FWD 19        128.15   P2p
Fa0/14           Altn BLK 19        128.16   P2p
Fa0/15           Altn BLK 19        128.17   P2p

sw1(config-if)#int fa0/14
sw1(config-if)#spanning-tree vlan 1 cost 1
sw1(config-if)#do sh sp v 1

VLAN0001
  Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
  Root ID    Priority    32769
             Address     0012.009c.ca00
             Cost        1
             Port        16 (FastEthernet0/14)
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec

  Bridge ID  Priority    32769  (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)
             Address     0012.018f.d580
             Hello Time   2 sec  Max Age 20 sec  Forward Delay 15 sec
             Aging Time 300

Interface        Role Sts Cost      Prio.Nbr Type
—————- —- — ——— ——– ——————————–
Fa0/13           Altn BLK 19        128.15   P2p
Fa0/14           Root FWD 1         128.16   P2p <-this is now green
Fa0/15           Altn BLK 19        128.17   P2p

Now fa0/13 and fa0/15 on sw1 are orange and fa0/14 is green.  All three ports on sw2 are still green.

September 14, 2007

Dynamips On Mac Mini Blog

Filed under: CCIE Blogs,Cisco,Cisco Certification,Dynamips,Home Lab,Training Materials — cciepursuit @ 12:17 pm

For all of you Mac-Heads out there, Scott from the GroupStudy list is blogging about his experiences with setting up Dynamips of a Mini Mac with 4 live, eight-port 3560s as a CCIE lab.  He’s using the Internetwork Expert lab topology. 

IT Artisans’ Dynamips Blog

September 13, 2007

Internetwork Expert: IPv6, Dynamips on Mac, and Cool Shirts

Internetwork Expert just sent out their September newsletter.  There are a couple of items of interest for R&S CCIE candidates:

On 26 September, IE will be conducting the second of their four announced free V-Seminars.  This month’s topic will be IPv6.  If last month’s V-Seminar is any indication, then they will most likely record the IPv6 class and put it up on their site for on-demand viewing.  This is good for candidates who can’t make it to the live class.

Building on the strength of their excellent Dynamips for Windows class-on-demand, IE will be releasing a COD for Dynamips using the MAC OSx operating system.   This class is scheduled to be available some time during the week of 17 – 21 September. 

If you are a customer of Internetwork Expert and you pass your lab, you can send them your name, CCIE number, and mailing address and they will send you a free polo shirt with your name and CCIE number on it.  They don’t show a picture of the shirt, but I think that this is a really cool idea.

September 3, 2007

X.28 Emulation – or – Watch Your Keystrokes

Filed under: Cisco,Cisco Certification,Home Lab,IOS,Lab Tips,Tech Tips — cciepursuit @ 11:45 am

I have an access server (actually an access router) running on my home lab.  I connect to the console port of this 2500 and then make reverse telnet connections out to the devices in the pod.  To jump from one device to another, I will use “control+shift+6+x” to return to the access server and then jump from there to the next device.  So to go from r1 to r2 I would use “control+shift+6+x” to get to the access server, then type “2” to connect to r2.  That’s what I intended to do when I encountered this output:

r1#x2

*
*?

ERR

*

Type “exit” to return

Somehow I had messed up my key strokes and ended up entering “x2” on r1.  This transported me into the strange, confusing world of the x28 emulation:

r1#x?
x28  x3

r1#x2?
x28

r1#x28 ?
  debug     Turn on Debug Messages for X28 Mode
  dns       Enable DNS based mnemonic address resolution
  escape    Set the string to escape from X28 PAD mode
  noescape  Never exit x28 mode (use with caution)
  nuicud    All calls with NUI, are normal charge with the NUI placed in Call
            User Data
  profile   Use a defined X.3 Profile
  reverse   All calls default to reverse charge
  verbose   Turn on Verbose Messages for X28 Mode
  <cr>

If this happens to you, just use “Shift-Ctrl-^-x” to get back to exec mode.

While it’s rare that you would accidently put your self in x.28 emulation mode, it is nice to know why your command prompt just went goofy and how to fix it.  You don’t want to waste time troubleshooting this in the CCIE lab.


Cisco Documentation

X.28 Emulation

Clearing Lines

Filed under: Cisco,Cisco Certification,Home Lab,IOS — cciepursuit @ 11:33 am

File this one under me being a bonehead.  I have my home lab devices connected to two power sources (glorified power strips – not quite UPS’s).  I generally flip the switches on these devices and all of my devices power up at once.  Then I connect my laptop to the console port of the access server (2500) and then make my connections to the devices in the pod.

I always end up battling the “lines”.  I will invariabley have some lines that I’m unable to use unless I clear them first.  Sometimes I have to clear them multiple times before I can connect over them (the connections to the switches seem to be the worst).

Here’s a typical example:

a1#sh line
 Tty Typ     Tx/Rx     A Modem  Roty AccO AccI  Uses    Noise   Overruns
*  0 CTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   1 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
*  2 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   3 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   4 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   5 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   6 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   7 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
*  8 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        2        2/5
*  9 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        1        0/0
* 10 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        1        1/0
* 11 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        1        0/0
* 12 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        1        0/0
  13 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  14 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  15 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  16 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  17 AUX   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  18 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  19 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  20 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  21 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  22 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0

I want to use line 2 to connect to r2:

a1#sh line
 Tty Typ     Tx/Rx     A Modem  Roty AccO AccI  Uses    Noise   Overruns
*  0 CTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   1 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
*  2 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
—–Output Truncated—–

Let’s clear the line:

a1#clear line 2
[confirm]
 [OK]
a1#sh line
 Tty Typ     Tx/Rx     A Modem  Roty AccO AccI  Uses    Noise   Overruns
*  0 CTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   1 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
*  2 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
—–Output Truncated—–

Now let’s make our connections:

a1#connect r1
Trying r1 (10.1.1.1, 2001)… Open

a1#connect r2
Trying r2 (10.1.1.1, 2002)…
% Connection refused by remote host

Curse you line 2!!!!

a1#sh line
 Tty Typ     Tx/Rx     A Modem  Roty AccO AccI  Uses    Noise   Overruns
*  0 CTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
*  1 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
*  2 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
—–Output Truncated—–

Some days it would take me 20 minutes just to get all of my reverse telnet sessions established.

I should have been able to figure out the problem earlier.  At my old job we had a ton of 2500s and 2600s in the field.  Whenever we would power cycle these routers we would have the site contact disconnect the cable from the console port and then reconnect it once the router came back up.  The console cable was connected to a small modem that we used for out-of-band management.  If we left that connection in the console port of the router, either the router would mess up it’s POST (this rarely happened) or the modem would become inaccessible (this happened a lot).  I’m not sure exactly what the caused this issue, but I should have been able to relate that experience to my own.

I did eventually decide to fire up all of the routers and switches before powering up the access router.  Or if I forgot to do that, I could just reload the access router.  That made all the difference in the world.

Et voila!  All my connections are availble:

After reload:
a1#sh line
 Tty Typ     Tx/Rx     A Modem  Roty AccO AccI  Uses    Noise   Overruns
*  0 CTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   1 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   2 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        1        0/0
   3 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   4 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   5 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   6 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   7 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
   8 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        1        0/0
   9 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  10 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  11 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        1        0/0
  12 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        1        0/0
  13 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  14 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  15 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  16 TTY   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  17 AUX   9600/9600   –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  18 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  19 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  20 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  21 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0
  22 VTY               –    –      –    –    –     0        0        0/0

No more battling the lines to establish my connections.  That save me time so that I can use it later when I screw something else up.  🙂

September 2, 2007

What’s Up DOC?

I came across this article that Scott Morris wrote for CertCities.com.  It’s from 2005, so it is a little dated, but well worth reading.  I encourage you to read the entire article, but I wanted to repost part of the article that deals with the importance of knowing how to use the Documentation CD during the exam:

What’s Up DOC? 

The Documentation CD is your friend. It’s the only reference you’ll have available during the lab, so you had best know it well!

Let me share with you a little anecdote. Back in 1999, when I was studying for the Routing and Switching lab, I went through all of these steps. I played with everything, I studied and labbed it all up! My goal was to practice on labs more bizarre than the actual test lab would be so that I could know everything possible and be one of the few who passed on the first try.

That was the goal anyway! And, I studied a lot to get there. Well, needless to say, they came up with something on the lab that I hadn’t thought about. Right then and there, that messed up my game a bit. Also, I’m one of those people who’ll beat something to death in troubleshooting until I figure it out. A great habit in real life, not so good under the time pressure of the lab!

They threw the kitchen sink at me, but I figured it out. However, I ate up a lot of time in the process, and I was unable to finish the whole exam because my bad management of time. Not cool.

Between my first and second attempts, I didn’t touch a router. The only thing I did was become more familiar with the Doc CD. By the time my second attempt came around, there were some things on the test I hadn’t thought about (they’re good at that!). But instead of blindly stabbing away at it, I took a more methodical approach with the Documentation CD and found answers faster. On this second attempt, I even finished the exam early—so early, in fact, it scared me! Fortunately, this time, I was successful.

So, remember, you have to have a strategy about how you’ll handle things and stick to it. Time management is a critical: Every minute you spend idling away or typing uselessly is 1/480 of your test, and it’ll go by fast!

Realizing this will also help you with answering, “How much of everything do I need to know? How can I memorize that much?” The answer is don’t memorize. Learn it. Once you know the basics, you can look up the details. If you know the basics, and you are familiar with the Doc CD, you’ll have plenty of time to fill in the blanks. Personally, I try not to memorize things, because commands may change from version to version of IOS. But conceptually, I know what I’m looking for so the details can be found in the Doc CD. In the very unfortunate case you don’t have a clue about something on the test, you can find out about it on the Doc CD: It covers everything on the test. Just be careful how much time you spend on it!

August 19, 2007

Will Dynamips Kill Home Labs and Rack Rentals?

As I’ve spent more time using Dynamips, a thought crossed my mind:

Will Dynamips eventually end the need for home labs and rack rentals?

Dynamips seems to have a lot of momentum right now.  I have seen quite a few postings from CCIE candidates that are only using Dyanamips in order to lab up scenarios.  Dynamips has a lot of big advantages over the conventional rack rental/home lab.  It is free.  It is portable.  From what I’ve heard, you can lab up all kinds of different technologies (Frame Relay, ATM, MPLS, etc) and topologies.  The size of your Dynamips lab is only limited by the amount of CPU and RAM you can give it.  The vendors (so far just Internetwork Expert, but the rest of the Core Four can’t be too far behind) are starting to release workbooks geared towards Dynamips.  Why would anyone want to go through the headache and financial burden of building a home lab or spend money on rack rentals that tie you down to a specific window of time?

I think that Dyanamips will eventually become the most popular choice for doing labs for the CCIE (on multiple paths).  Does that mean the death bell will toll for rack rental companies and home labs?  No.  While I do think that we’re going to see some of the rack rental companies scale back, there will still be a need for real gear.  Dynamips cannot emulate a lot of the high-end switching features at this time (from what I understand, it never will).  This means that you’ll need to have access to actual Cisco switches in order to practice those skills.  Furthermore, even though Dynamips runs like a champ if you tweak it enough and give it enough resources, there are going to be candidates who simply won’t want to either spend the money to upgrade their systems (this will be less of an issue as time goes on and Moore’s law does its magic) or to take the time to tweak variables in the software. 

I also believe that the rack rental companies (especially the vendors’ racks) will still get business from candidates that are getting their employers to pay for their training.  Most (all?) of the vendors offer some combination of rack time packaged with their products.  If your employer is willing to pay for your rack rentals, why mess around with Dynamips?  One other advantage that the vendors have is that a good number of candidates are going to want to use their equipment because it matches the vendors’ lab topologies.  Also, there will be a sizable number of people (myself included) who will still want to use real gear, regardless of how closely Dynamips can emulate that gear.  If I run into a problem when I’m labbing on Dynamips, I note the issue and then lab it up on my rack to verify that it was not just a Dynamips bug.

My prediction is that Dynamips will increase in popularity as the program improves and as PC resources increase.  It’s going to put a dent in the rack rental business.  I think that the biggest casulty will be the home rack.  Why spend thousands on a rack that you’ll eventually try to sell back at the end of your studies, when you can have a portable lab with Dynamips (that you can augment with rack rental sessions).  One thing that is nearly certain, many more people are going to pursue CCIE certification because of Dynamips.  This software has effectively erased two big hurdles to CCIE certification: the cost and availability of Cisco network labs.  Finally, Dynamips is going to allow CCIE candidates to prepare for the lab much faster.   Candidates will not be tied down to specific windows of time (rack rentals) or the need to be connected to a home/work lab.  You can take your lab with you on your laptop.  This will maximize the amount of possible lab available to candidates.  More candidates with shorter study cycles will eventually lead to more CCIEs in the future.

August 18, 2007

My Home Lab

Filed under: Cisco,Cisco Certification,Home Lab — cciepursuit @ 6:40 am

Just in case anyone is wondering, here’s what I have running in my home (actually it sits on my desk at work) lab:

a1 (access server)
Model: Cisco 2511 (68030) processor (revision L) with 14336K/2048K bytes of memory.
IOS ™ 2500 Software (C2500-I-L), Version 11.3(11c), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
System image file is “flash:c2500-i-l.113-11c.bin”, booted via flash

sw1
Cisco IOS Software, C3560 Software (C3560-IPSERVICESK9-M), Version 12.2(25)SEE2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
System image file is “flash:c3560-ipservicesk9-mz.122-25.SEE2/c3560-ipservicesk9-mz.122-25.SEE2.bin”
cisco WS-C3560-48PS (PowerPC405) processor (revision G0) with 118784K/12280K bytes of memory.

sw2
Cisco IOS Software, C3560 Software (C3560-IPSERVICESK9-M), Version 12.2(25)SEE2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
System image file is “flash:c3560-ipservicesk9-mz.122-25.SEE2/c3560-ipservicesk9-mz.122-25.SEE2.bin”
cisco WS-C3560-48PS (PowerPC405) processor (revision G0) with 118784K/12280K bytes of memory.

sw3
Cisco IOS Software, C3550 Software (C3550-IPSERVICESK9-M), Version 12.2(25)SEE2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
System image file is “flash:c3550-ipservicesk9-mz.122-25.SEE2/c3550-ipservicesk9-mz.122-25.SEE2.bin”
Cisco WS-C3550-24 (PowerPC) processor (revision D0) with 65526K/8192K bytes of memory.

sw4
Cisco IOS Software, C3550 Software (C3550-IPSERVICESK9-M), Version 12.2(25)SEE2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
System image file is “flash:c3550-ipservicesk9-mz.122-25.SEE2/c3550-ipservicesk9-mz.122-25.SEE2.bin”
Cisco WS-C3550-24 (PowerPC) processor (revision E0) with 65526K/8192K bytes of memory.

r1
Cisco IOS Software, C2600 Software (C2600-ADVENTERPRISEK9-M), Version 12.4(10),RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
System image file is “flash:c2600-adventerprisek9-mz.124-10.bin”
Cisco 2651XM (MPC860P) processor (revision 3.1) with 253952K/8192K bytes of memory.

r2
Cisco IOS Software, 2800 Software (C2800NM-ADVENTERPRISEK9-M), Version 12.4(11)T2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc4)
System image file is “flash:c2800nm-adventerprisek9-mz.124-11.T2.bin”
Cisco 2821 (revision 53.51) with 249856K/12288K bytes of memory.

r3
Cisco IOS Software, C2600 Software (C2600-ADVENTERPRISEK9-M), Version 12.4(10),RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
System image file is “flash:c2600-adventerprisek9-mz.124-10.bin”
Cisco 2651XM (MPC860P) processor (revision 3.1) with 253952K/8192K bytes of memory.

r4
Cisco IOS Software, C2600 Software (C2600-ADVENTERPRISEK9-M), Version 12.4(10),RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
System image file is “flash:c2600-adventerprisek9-mz.124-10.bin”
Cisco 2651XM (MPC860P) processor (revision 4.0) with 253952K/8192K bytes of memory.

r5
IOS ™ C2600 Software (C2600-IS-M), Version 12.3(22), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
System image file is “flash:c2600-is-mz.123-22.bin”
cisco 2651XM (MPC860P) processor (revision 0x301) with 126976K/4096K bytes of memory.

r6
IOS ™ C2600 Software (C2600-IS-M), Version 12.3(22), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
System image file is “flash:c2600-is-mz.123-22.bin”
cisco 2620 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x00) with 59392K/6144K bytes of memory.

r7
IOS ™ C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.3(22), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
System image file is “flash:c2600-i-mz.123-22.bin”
cisco 2620 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x600) with 45056K/4096K bytes of memory.

FRS1
Cisco IOS Software, 2800 Software (C2800NM-SPSERVICESK9-M), Version 12.3(11)T6,RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3)
System image file is “flash:c2800nm-spservicesk9-mz.123-11.T6.bin”
Cisco 2851 (revision 53.51) with 251904K/10240K bytes of memory.


r5 – r7 need code upgrades.  I don’t use r6 ad r7 much right now, so they’re okay to stay at the older code.  r5 is the Frame Relay hub in the Internetwork Expert topology, so it will be getting a code upgrade soon.

I am using WICs on all of the routers so I don’t have any v.35 cables (I’ve created my own T1 cables from Ethernet cables).  This make some of the configuration a little more complicated (especially on the Frame Relay switch) but my cabling is a lot more managable.

I will post some pictures later, but here’s a shot of the lab prior to the addition of the all of the switches.

Home Lab 2

August 13, 2007

Dynamips Is Up

Filed under: Cisco,Cisco Certification,Dynamips,Home Lab,IOS — cciepursuit @ 10:35 am

I finally spent a little bit of time messing with Dynamips.  I am using a Lenovo Z61m 1.66Ghz Duo Core laptop with 512M of RAM.  I decided not to attempt to run the entire Internetwork Expert lab, but rather just to alter their .net file so that I’m running 5 routers with a Frame Relay switch.  After I set the idlepc values and turned on ghostbios and mmap, I was able to get all 5 routers running at the same time with less than 15% CPU utilization (usually in the 2% – 5% range – with big jumps when writing the configuration) and less than 90M or RAM.  Take the time to read this document along with the Internetwork Expert COD on Dynamips and you’ll be up and running efficiently in no time.  My biggest stumbling block was figuring out why I could not telnet to 127.0.0.1 (Symantec Personal Firewall was blocking it).  The Dynamips emulation is very good.  There are a couple of differences compared to the real thing (reloads are handled differently), but overall I am extremely impressed.

I plan to use this 5 router Dynamips lab to do the vast majority of the Internetwork Expert Volume I labs until I get remote access to my work lab (probably 2 – 4 weeks away).  I will also be upgrading the RAM in this laptop (it’s my wife’s laptop) to 2Gig and attempting to run the entire Internetwork Expert lab.  This should be an easy sell, “Honey, I think that we should upgrade your laptop memory.”  🙂

Here’s my .net file if anyone is interested:


autostart=false
[localhost:7200]
[[3640]]

image = C:\Program Files\Dynamips\images\c3640-jk9o3s-mz.123-14.T7.bin
 ram = 128
 disk0 = 0
 disk1 = 0
 mmap = true
 ghostios = true

###########################
#
# Define router instances
#
###########################

[[Router R1]]
  model = 3640
  console = 2001
  autostart = false
  slot0 = NM-1FE-TX
  slot1 = NM-4T
  S1/0 = FRSW 1

[[Router R2]]
  model = 3640
  console = 2002
  autostart = false
  slot0 = NM-1FE-TX
  slot1 = NM-4T
  S1/0 = FRSW 2

[[Router R3]]
  model = 3640
  console = 2003
  autostart = false
  slot0 = NM-4E
  slot1 = NM-4T
  S1/0 = FRSW 3
  S1/1 = FRSW 13
  S1/2 = R1 S1/1
  S1/3 = R2 S1/1

[[Router R4]]
  model = 3640
  console = 2004
  autostart = false
  slot0 = NM-4E
  slot1 = NM-4T
  S1/0 = FRSW 4
  S1/1 = R5 S1/1

[[Router R5]]
  model = 3640
  console = 2005
  autostart = false
  slot0 = NM-4E
  slot1 = NM-4T
  S1/0 = FRSW 5

[[FRSW FRSW]]

# R1 to FRSW
  1:102 = 2:201
  1:103 = 3:301
  1:113 = 13:311
  1:104 = 4:401
  1:105 = 5:501

# R2 to FRSW
  2:203 = 3:302
  2:213 = 13:312
  2:204 = 4:402
  2:205 = 5:502

# R3 to FRSW
  3:304 = 4:403
  3:305 = 5:503
  13:314 = 4:413
  13:315 = 5:513

# R4 to FRSW
  4:405 = 5:504

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